Tag Archive for Environment

Treatment Process for Drinking Water

Water is one of the most essential element to life on earth. Without water no living organism can survive. Treatment of drinking water is the process of removal of contaminants from water and make it acceptable for use. The treatment process for drinking water depends on the location, type of water to be processed and the technology of the plant. Here is a standard treatment process for drinking water.

Coagulation
It is the process of removing dirt or other particles from the water. In this process, alum or polymers are added to the water to be treated. This on reaction with water forms a tiny sticky floc. This floc attracts dirt particles in the water and sticks to it and forms a large floc. This process is also called flocculation.

Sedimentation
It is the process where flocs settle down to the bottom. As the water and the flocs pass through the sedimentation basin, water moves slowly to settle down the flocs to the bottom. Flocs which collects to the bottom of the basin is called sludge.

Filtration
It is the process of removing contaminated particles from water. In this step, the water is passed through the filter to remove suspended floc from water. Filters are made up of a layer of sand and gravel or charcoal. Filters used for the removal of particles are slow sand filters, rapid sand filters and membrane filters. This removes even tiny particles present in the water.

Disinfection
It is the process of killing microbes in the water. In this step, disinfectant such as chlorine is added to the water before passing into the distribution system. It is added to kill if any microbes are present in the water. Residual amounts of disinfectants can be maintained to prevent the biological contamination of water in the distribution system.

Sludge drying
It is the process of removal of solids that are collected from the water by sedimentation process to drying lagoons.

Fluoridation
In this process, hexafluorosilicic acid is added to the water which decompose to yield fluoride ions. This fluoride level is adjusted to the optimum level to minimize the dental caries. Excess fluoridation leads to osteoporosis.

PH correction
PH of the drinking water should be 7. Lime is added to the fluoridated water to adjust the PH of the water. It stabilizes the natural soft water to prevent corrosion in distribution system.

Storage
Finally the treated water is stored in closed tanks or reservoirs from where it flows through pipes to homes.
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How is Gas Lease Different from an Oil Lease

Even though the term oil and gas royalties is generally used for all the leases which enable oil and gas leases and royalties, both gas and oil leases differ from each other. There are few reasons for making the deals in a different way and let us know the things involved.

Unlike oil, gas is in gaseous state and is further liquified for transport. Moreover, it is used in the region where it is produced. For this, it has to be transported with the help of a network of pipelines. But, for gas, there are no local refineries as they are for the crude oil and hence it needs to be transported, the moment it is produced. For this, the company will arrange a huge network of pipelines before starting production. Hence the capital investment to move the gas from the point of production is quite high when compared to oil transportation to local and regional refineries.

Again the price for the natural gas produced at the well is determined by the gas sales contract whereas the market for gas is determined according to the season, need for the natural gas and liquified natural gas. This differs for the oil leases which are decided according to the market rate at that time.

Due to all these factors gas contracts became much shorter to avoid the fluctuations in the business and the changing prices of the gas. As gas is in vapor stage until it is liquified for transport, it becomes difficult to offer royalty for the gas. Many land owners prefer to have cash and credit for their royalty. And it is often advised to take cash, as the volatility of the gas is quite high. Gas royalty clauses usually state a royalty in market value. These are the reasons why the land owners tend to make different royalties for gas and oil production.

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Selling Vs Leasing of Mineral Rights

It is often confusing for the people who own a land along with the mineral rights, whether to sell the rights or to give them for lease. They are not sure about what exactly to do mostly in case of people having more properties. There are two cases in this situation. One is to sell the rights the moment you get a best deal from a good mining company. And the second thing is to wait till you get a good offer and best deal in the industry.

The moment you get a deal just try to compute the lease value and the price after selling your rights. Calculate the lease for a span of 40 years or even more. This is bit difficult because the calculation depends upon the price of the mineral on the particular day of mining and also quantity of mineral found on that particular day. However, with a professional assistance you can compute the things by taking the average of both the quantities. If it will is much lesser than the amount you get after selling your rights, a wise business man will sell his rights and enjoy the lump sum amount.

Second case, waiting for the best deal to come. Let us see this with an example. Mr. X has a few acres of land for which he wants to sell his mineral rights. He got a best deal from one mining company, but rejected it because he thought it is much lesser. After few days, the same company purchased the rights of his neighbor and found the mineral is not up to the mark what the company expected to be. Now, coming back to X, no company who came to know about his neighbors issue offered him the best deal. In this case, he cannot sell it, but only can lease his rights which earns very less mount of money.

So, it is always best to sell your rights the moment you thought you got a nice deal.

Know About Green Air Conditioner

Generally Air Conditioners release hydro chlorofluorocarbons into the air, causing depletion of the ozone layer which protects the earth from UV radiations. A green air conditioner is the solution for this problem as it helps in the carbon foot print reduction which causes minimal pollution.

Going green directs to reduction in the consumption of fossil fuels and also reduction in the release of green house gases. Green AC protects the users from global warming and acid rains caused because of green house gases. Ductless green air conditioners, also referred to as split systems, regulates the temperature in rooms individually. According to the EPA, users can save up to 30% in energy costs by installing or retrofitting a green air conditioning system.

Tips for Installing Green Air Conditioning:

  • Increase Attic Insulation- Adding more insulation is one of the best investment strategies to get a return on investment in a matter of few months to few years.
  • Install Radiant Heat Barriers- These are a thin layer of metal insulation which can reduce radiant heat transfer.
  • Install Programmable Thermostats- Programmable thermostats help to reduce energy consumption.
  • Install Ceiling Fans- The breeze created by a good ceiling fan can eliminate the need to run your AC on cooler days. It also helps to distribute warm air in the winter, helping to reduce energy costs.
  • Seal and Insulating Duct work- Poorly sealed duct work can reduce the cooling efficiency of air conditioning system, because air can run through uninsulated spaces like attics, garages and crawl spaces.

Primary Colors differ in different fields

When asked about the primary colors, most of us would say “red, blue and green”. We were taught about these colors at schools and we may look confident. But it is not the case, some fields use different colors as primaries.

However, there is no issue considering these colors as primary colors of light. They are generally used in media that combine emitted lights such as in television, and computer video displays. You can easily demonstrate this by putting a drop of water on your TV or computer screen. But it is a different case with paints and pigments.

The basic definition of ‘primary colors states that a primary color cannot be produced by mixing two colors together. But, mixing equal amounts of cyan and magenta can make blue and mixing equal amounts of magenta and yellow can produce red in color printing. So, they are not considered as the primary colors in printing industry. Other colors such as cyan magenta and yellow are considered as primary colors in paints and pigments.

According to Webster’s New World Dictionary, the primary colors of paints, pigments, etc. are red, yellow and blue. A journal of chemical education states that cyan, magenta, and yellow are used as primaries in printing. Some say Yellow, Red (Magenta), and Blue (Cyan) are primaries in color printing industry.