Tag Archive for Dental Health

How to prevent teeth from getting stained?

By nature we all have some flaws in our teeth. While some of the people feel bad about their broken or crooked arrangement, others worry about their dull or stained colored teeth. Our teeth can acquire stains with age or perhaps due to excess consumption of colored foods and beverages that are turning them into dark yellow tint. It is important to remember that only a pearly white teeth can make our smile bright and attractive. Read more

Inlays and On-lays for Repairing Damaged Teeth

Dental in-lays and on-lays provide several purposes and treatment options for various dental restorative services. They repairs the rear teeth that have been damaged or fractured. They are generally made of tooth colored material and used to replace the traditional form of metal fillings for a natural appearance. On-lays are used to treat larger surface areas and inlays used for treating the indented top surfaces of teeth.

The treatment procedure

  • An inlay or on-lay procedure can be completed in to dental visits.
  • In your first visit, dentist prepares the damaged tooth and a modeled impression will be taken and sent to a dental laboratory where the inlay or on-lay is manufactured.
  • Inlays and on-lays are usually made of materials such as porcelain or resin, gold materials. The difference is in their appearance of the final completed restoration.
  • A temporary inlay or on-lay in the shape of final restoration can be created during the first visit for protecting the tooth, while the final restoration is being fabricated.
  • In case of back molars opting for gold inlays/ on-lays makes the best option.
  • Inlays/ on-lays made up of porcelain are mostly used in the smile line areas.
  • Resin made inlays/ on lays best suits for people who grind their teeth and with misaligned bite.
  • During the second visit, the temporary restoration will be removed and the permanent inlay/ on-lay is placed.
  • Dentist check for all margins to make sure that a smooth fit with tight adjacent contact occurs.
  • Also they check for bite issues to ensure that no occlusion problems affect the margins of restoration.
  • Once the restoration is fitted/ bonded on to the tooth, the margins are well polished.

Benefits of inlays and on-lays

  • Easier cleaning of tooth: Due to the proper tailored fit and with minimum preparation, teeth can be cleaned easily. Prefabricated inlays and on-lays doesn’t shrink during the curing process.
  • Tooth color: Inlays and on-lays boast up longevity and are not likely to discolor over a period of time.
  • Superior fit: Inlays and on-lays offers a reactionary preparation that preserves healthy tooth as much as possible. They provide a great option if you have minimal to moderate decay that extends to flossing area, thus offering an alternative to full covering crowns.
  • Safeguarding the tooth structure: They help to preserve maximum tooth structure while restoring damaged or decayed areas thus ensuring functional longevity.
  • Protecting the weak tooth: On-lays protect the weak areas of tooth and the procedure does not require complete tooth reshaping.
  • Stability and strength: Inlays and on-lays make stable restorative solutions for the decay treatment. Durable material and superior fit make them a stable choice for strengthening up a damaged tooth.
  • Tight space fulfillment: Inlays can be considered if you have cavity between your teeth as of they are better at sealing the teeth to keep out bacteria. They will not stain, are easy to clean and offer durability.

Dental inlays/ on-lays improves the health of your teeth and appearance of your smile and treatment requires no downtime.
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Types of Oral Appliances in Dentistry

Oral appliances are the devices applied to the patients oral cavity for a certain period of time to treat various disorders associated with the oral cavity. Oral appliances are commonly used to treat sleeping apnea and temporomandibular joint disorders.

Types of oral appliances
There are several types of oral appliances available depending on the type of disorder in oral cavity. These include:

    • Mandibular repositioning devices

Mandibular repositioning devices are made of heat sensitive acrylic material. These are custom fitted to each patient’s mouth. These are used to treat sleeping apnea. Patients with sleeping apnea have narrowed air ways during sleeping. It is fitted to the lower jaw to reposition the mandible to the normal position. This will push the tongue and soft tissue to open the air ways and restore normal breathing during sleeping.

    • Tongue retaining devices

It is used in patients with elongated tongue. It is a device used to keep the tongue in normal position during sleeping. It is used to treat obstructive sleeping apnea syndrome. It is a custom made device made up of soft pliable material. It should be worn while sleeping. It has a compartment in which tongue is positioned by means of negative pressure. Tongue retaining devices require adaptation to the patient holding tongue in the compartment. Therefore tongue exercise and adaption program is given prior to the insertion of tongue retaining device.

    • Orthodontic appliances

Orthodontic appliances are the devices applied to the teeth to position them in normal position. Orthodontic appliances include orthodontic retainers and space maintainers.

    • Orthodontic retainers are custom made orthodontic appliances used to position the teeth in its place after removal of braces. Orthodontic retainers are either fixed or removable retainers.
    • Space maintainers are used to keep the space for the permanent teeth to erupt and come out of the gums. If these are not used the gap created by the missing tooth replaced by the shifting of the adjacent teeth then surgery is necessary to correct the abnormality. These are custom made by the orthodontist and made up of plastic or metallic material. Space retainers are either fixed or removable.

Types of Gum Diseases

Dental Implant LondonGum disease is a condition that affects the gums and other structures supporting your teeth and also underlying jaw bone. Gum diseases are mainly due to the growth of bacteria that leads to the build up of plaque in mouth. If it is not treated in the early stage it may lead to the loss of teeth.

Gum diseases are of two types, gingivitis and periodontal diseases. Let’s discuss about them briefly.

Gingivitis is a mild problem of gum disease. Normally bacteria grows in our mouth which on reaction with mucous and other particles in mouth leads to the formation of colorless sticky plaque on mouth. If not treated it becomes hard and forms tartar which is difficult to remove. This leads to the inflammation of gums and bleeding from gums called gingivitis.

It is most seen in pregnant women, diabetes patients and patients taking medicines for blood pressure and seizures. There are two forms of gingivitis: acute and chronic gingivitis. Acute gingivitis is due to infection, trauma and micro organisms, whereas chronic gingivitis is due to the inflammation of gum tissue surround the teeth.

Periodontal diseases
If gingivitis is untreated, it can lead to periodontitis. The plaque starts spreading all over the mouth and grows below the gum line. This plaque releases toxins which destroys the tissue and bone supporting the teeth. Then gums get separate from teeth and forms gap between the teeth. These gaps are occupied with debris and become infected. Finally teeth becomes loose and loss of teeth takes place. There are many forms of periodontitis, such as:

  • Chronic Periodontitis: It is the inflammation below the gum line. It occurs mostly in people over 40 age. It causes the destruction of gum and bone tissue. It cannot be cured completely as the supporting tissue gets destroyed. However, it can be treated by tissue grafting surgery to strengthen the bone.
  • Aggressive Periodontitis: It is the condition where there is a rapid loss of gum attachment or loss of bone tissue. It is same as chronic periodontitis, but the progression is rapid. It is commonly seen in people who smoke and who have a family history of this disease. Like chronic periodontitis, it can be treated by medications and surgery.
  • Narcotizing Periodontitis: It is rarely seen and it is the infection due to the death of gum tissue and periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. It is mainly seen in patients with HIV, immuno suppression and malnutrition. It can be treated by using anti microbial pills, medicated mouth washes and root planning and scaling method.

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Types of Oral Cancer

Cancer is a dreaded ill-health condition. Oral cancer is the uncontrolled division of abnormal cells that leads to growth of malignant tumors in oral cavity. Oral cancer is the branch of head and neck type cancer. Oral cancer affects lips, tongue, mouth, tonsils, gums, teeth and salivary glands.
Tumors are classified into 2 types:

  • Benign tumors
  • Malignant tumors

Benign tumors are non cancerous. They grow very slowly and will not spread to other parts. Once removed by surgery, they will not recur.

Malignant tumors are cancerous tumors. They grow rapidly and proliferation of cells to other parts. Even though removed by surgery it will come again.

Types of oral cancer
There are several types of oral cancers:

  • Lip cancer
  • Tongue cancer
  • Salivary gland cancer
  • Lymphoma
  • Melanoma

1. Lip cancer
Lip cancer is a condition where abnormal growth of cells on the lining of lip happens. It is more common in the male than the female. Lip cancers are of two types: basal and squamous cell carcinoma. It is easily detectable and cured in early stages.


  • Exposure of lips to UV radiation along with tobacco usage.
  • Regular consumption of alcohol
  • Infection with HPV virus

Detected at early stage, it can be treated easily. Mainly lower lip get effected as it is more exposed than upper lip. It can be treated by surgery, Radiation therapy, Cryotherapy. Mohs surgery is used to remove the thin layer of skin tissue that is affected by tumor.

2. Tongue cancer
Tongue cancer is the development of malignant tumor on tongue surface. If the tumor on front surface of tongue then it is comes under oral cancer. If it on base of the tongue, it comes under oropharyngeal cancer.


  • Improper fitting of dentures
  • Acid reflux from mouth
  • Chewing tobacco products
  • Exposure to chemicals
  • Deficiency of essential nutrients

It can be easily treated by surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy. Targeted drug therapy effectively treat tongue cancer. In this drugs interfere with the growth of tumors.

3. Salivary gland cancer
Cancer which affects salivary glands. Salivary glans produces saliva which keeps mouth moist. This helps to remove bacteria from mouth. Most of the tumors on salivary glands are benign. It is less common.


  • Old age people are more affected
  • Exposure to chemicals
  • Radiation therapy on neck and head

Salivary gland cancer can be treated by fast neutron radiation therapy, photo beam radiation therapy. Radio sensitizers are the drugs that makes tumors to become sensitive to radiation.

4. Lymphoma
Lymphoma is the cancer where proliferation of abnormal cells happens on lymph nodes. Tonsils are also affected as these are made up of lymph tissue. Lymphoma affects immune system. Lymphoma are of two types Hodgkin and Non Hodgkin. Non hodgkin is commonly seen and affects both T-cells and B-cells.


  • Immune deficiency-Auto immune diseases
  • Nuclear radiation exposure

Immunological therapy with monoclonal anti bodies boosts immune system, stem cell transplantation, surgery are the treatments for lymph node cancer.

5. Melanoma
These are less common and seen on maxillary gingiva. Detection in early stage saves life.


  • Dysfunction of the adrenal gland
  • Immune deficiency
  • Genetics

Radiation therapy and surgery are helpful to treat this type of carcinoma.