Archive for Society

Types of Garden Bench Materials and Their Uses

A garden bench makes a huge difference in your garden. It adds a miniature housesfinishing touch to your garden landscape. There are various options available for choosing the benches for your garden but, to make your garden bench long lasting you need to select the appropriate or sustainable bench material or furniture for your garden. So choose a material that suites the garden style and your requirements. Some of the materials that you can choose are:

Many garden benches come with wood furniture and those are made of various types of wood like teak, cedar, redwood, oak, etc. The durability of the wood benches may vary for the each type. Among the listed ones, teak is known for its extreme durability which can withstand to the intense weather conditions and it doesn’t require any maintenance. So, if you go for choosing durable wood benches for your garden you can choose teak though it is expensive. But, when it comes to other types of wood you need to maintain them regularly with some coatings or repellents to make them durable.

Garden benches made of stones are more of concrete material. So, when it comes to choosing the stone benches concrete gives classical accent to your garden. Most types of concrete benches are durable and doesn’t require maintenance. But, the drawback with this benches is, they crack in winter seasons. So, check even for small crack in the benches before you purchase.

Cast Iron
Cast iron benches are decorative pieces of your garden but, they are prone to rust quickly. So, before you purchase them see to it that they are coated with rust resistant powder. This increase the durability of the benches. But, cast iron benches are too heavy to place in your garden.

Resin benches are made out of recycled plastic. It has many miniature gardenbenefits like lightweight, comfortable and durable. But, they need some maintenance. Benches made of high quality resin lasts long and they can withstand to all weather conditions. They are available in variety of colors and styles. So, if you choose this resin material you will have various choices for your garden.

Aluminum is often found in the outdoor garden. They are light weight, portable, corrosion and rust resistant. These benches can last long and comes in various colors and styles. But, this benches need to be repainted at least once or twice a year. It is an economical option for your outdoor gardens.
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Advantages and Limitations of an Electric Car

Conventional cars emit harmful gases that adversely affect human, animal and plant life. In an endeavor to reduce the harmful effects of pollutants and to conserve the fossil fuels, electric cars came into picture. Electric cars completely depend on electric charge stored in batteries for their power and use electric motors for propulsion. Hence, they are eco-friendly and save fossil fuels. Having so many advantages, electric cars could not become popular in the market mainly because of the limitations imposed by the batteries and few other factors.

Advantages of electric vehiclesWater pump repair

  • Electric vehicles are eco-friendly. This is the biggest advantage of electric vehicles. They do not emit harmful pollutants and do not create noise.
  • They do not rely on fossil fuels for their operation. Hence, you will save a lot of money over fuels as electrical power is relatively cheaper.
  • They require a little maintenance and they can be charged anywhere by docking the vehicle into a power socket.
  • Though the initial investment is little high, they prove to be economical in the long run.
  • Many states and countries offer tax benefits and incentives on purchase of electric vehicles.

Limitations of electric vehicles

  • Electrical vehicles are powered by batteries. The cumulative weight of the batteries is considerable. This in turn affects the performance of the vehicle as the weight has to be bore by the batteries only.
  • Frequent recharging and discharging of the batteries reduces the life of the batteries and they have to be changed over short intervals of time.
  • Their operation time is very less. They are designed to travel a maximum distance of somewhere near 100 km. So, long trips cannot be pursued on these vehicles.
  • Though charging ports are available, these vehicles take 5-6 hours to recharge the battery. Additionally, frequent recharging can reflect on your power bills in a heft way.
  • Service centers are not easily available.
  • The noiseless operation of the vehicles can be a disadvantage since people may not see them coming at blind points and it can pose risk of accidents.

Extensive research is being carried by the manufacturers to reduce the limitations in electric vehicles.
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All about Braking System and Its Components

Brakes are important components in automobiles to control the speed of vehicles. In this article, we will discuss the braking system and their components. Brakes are essential for safety.

About brakes and braking system

  • A brake is a mechanical device that controls motion of an automobile/vehicle by slowing or stopping the moving parts.
  • Braking of a vehicle depends on static function of brakes between tires and road
  • surface.
  • In braking system “The kinetic energy is dissipated in the form of heat energy”.
  • Most brakes use friction between moving parts (wheel or wheel drum) and stationary parts of vehicle (brake shoes).
  • The heat energy generated due to application of brakes is dissipated into air.

Components of braking system in a vehicle
Brake pedal

  • The brake pedal acts as a lever.
  • It’s used to increase the force applied by the driver on the brake pedal pad.
  • It uses a lever to transfer the force from the driver’s foot to the master cylinder.

Brake pads

  • These are the steel plates that are bound with a frictional material facing the rotor. These are mostly used in disc brakes.

Brake lines

  • Brake lines carry the braking fluid from the master cylinder to the brakes.
  • The brake lines transmit a considerable amount of hydraulic pressure to stop the vehicle.
  • These are mostly made of steel and they are attached to the vehicle body with clips to prevent damage from vibration.

Brake shoes

  • These are a pair of steel pieces welded together.
  • A compression spring is placed attached to this shoes so that whenever the brake is applied, the compression spring compresses causing the brake shoes to expand to the brake drum to stop the wheel.

Brake drum

  • It’s a rotating drum-shaped component mounted on the wheel.
  • It is mostly used in drum brakes.
  • The friction between the brake drum and the brake shoes causes the wheel to reduce the speed or stop.

Rotor/brake disc

  • It’s a cast iron material disc which is connected to wheel or axle.
  • With the friction between the brake pads and the brake wheel the motion of the wheel is reduced or stopped.
  • These are also made of reinforced carbon-carbon, and ceramics composite.


  • It’s a moving component which is connected to the master cylinder.
  • It is used to pressurize the braking fluid.


  • The main purpose of the caliper is to slow the vehicles speed by creating friction on the brake disc.
  • The brake caliper fits over the rotor like a clamp.
  • Inside the caliper are a pair of metal plates bonded with friction material called as brake pads.

These caliper are of two types they are as follows

  • Floating caliper
    • It moves relative to the brake disc.
    • It consists of a piston on one side of disc to push inner brake pad into braking surface before pulling caliper body to apply pressure on opposite side of disc.
    • These are also known as a sliding calipers.
  • Fixed caliper
    • It does not move relative to rotor.
    • It uses one or more single pairs of opposing pistons to clamp from each side of the brake disc.

Master cylinder

  • Master cylinder is device which converts the non-hydraulic pressure from your foot into hydraulic pressure.
  • It also controls “slave cylinders” which is at the opposite end of the hydraulic system.
  • It is the most important device pressurizing the braking fluid.

Vacuum servo/brake booster

  • It’s used to enhance the master cylinder and to increases the pressure by driver’s foot by using vacuum in the engine intake.
  • These are effective only when the vehicle’s engine is running.

These are some of the components of the braking system in a vehicle. Proper maintenance of the braking components can prevent brake failure. If you ignore the maintenance of the braking components, it may lead to dangerous accidents.
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Coolant and Its Importance in Vehicles

The coolant plays an important role to protect the engine of your automobile. Without the radiator coolant, your vehicle/car would overheat quickly leading to breakdown and even engine failure. The coolant and water get mixed up in the radiator. This prevents freezing and boiling of the water. In this article, we’ll discuss the coolant and its importance in vehicles.

What does the coolant do?
The coolant is a fluid. It absorbs heat from the engine and then blows it through the radiator. The coolant is also called antifreeze, and is a mixture of ethylene (or propylene glycol) and water, in a 50/50 ratio.

The coolant is a mixture of water and antifreeze. It gets stored in the radiator. Generally, more amount of antifreeze is mixed with water to increase the boiling point and decrease the freezing point. During combustion of fuel, close to 33% of the energy produced will be wasted in the form of surplus heat or exhaust. The excess heat that remains in the engine overheats the engine components which results in its breakdown.

When the coolant mixture moves through the engine by means of a water pump, it circulates through the engine and absorbs the excess heat and takes it to the radiator. Due to the heat exchange process in the radiator, the heat in the coolant is dispelled through the cooling fins, and the coolant is cooled and circulated through the system again. The radiator is placed such that it receives an adequate amount of inflow of outside air consistently to cool the coolant.

Importance of coolant in vehicles
In the absence of the coolant, the heat produced during the internal combustion remains in the engine. Due to the high temperature inside, the motor boils it and destroys the engine very quickly. Due to continuous absorbing heat by the coolant, the water present in the system is likely to evaporate entirely. The water may freeze in cold weather, if the engine is idle. Because of this, the cooling system doesn’t work effectively. Therefore, use of antifreeze is useful to ensure better functionality of the coolant.

You should get the coolant inspected when needed to protect the system’s components against corrosion and overheating.

It is recommended that the coolant should be changed for every 30,000 miles. Even the radiator, should be working well. If rust builds up in the radiator, the heat exchanger may fail leading to problems while you’re driving.

Many mechanical failures are because of overheating of the engine. Ensure that all the cooling system components – the radiator, the water pump, the thermostat and the heater core are in good condition and by keeping the coolant in the system at correct level, you can avoid break down of vehicle.

Making sure to check regularly the coolant in your car reduces the maintenance cost of your car and increases the life of the your engine components.
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Difference Between Indoor and Outdoor Plants

Gardening is a hobby of growing and cultivating plants. This habit fairy gardenrelieves us from stress and gives relaxation to the mind. Gardening are generally of two types. One is indoor gardening while the other is outdoor gardening. Indoor gardening refers to growing of plants in indoor such as homes or offices. Outdoor gardening is growing plants outside, in the open air.

There are some differences between indoor and outdoor gardening. These include:

Plant species
Climate greatly affects the plants to grow indoor or outdoor. Indoor plants need controlled climate. So that indoor plants grow inside as the climate can be controlled and environment can be manipulated to suit the plant requirements. Outdoor plants can withstand climate changes and can grow in open air.

Space requirementLED grow lights
Indoor plants require less space to grow where as outdoor plants require more space. Unlike outdoor plants, indoor plants can not grow to the mature size. Its growth depends on the container in which the plant is growing. Its growth is restricted by the container. The size of the container we choose for indoor planting is based on the space we have in home or office.

Every plant species require light but the amount required varies depends on the plant species. Outdoor plants require more amount of light and can get through sun light where as indoor plants gets light through windows. The lighting can be provided to indoor plants by proving artificial lights too. Some indoor plants require little sunlight and must be placed in shadow places.

Another difference between the indoor and outdoor plants is the water regulation. Indoor plants can be provided water by ourselves where as outdoor plants receive periodic water supply from rainfall. Adequate water should be provided to the indoor plants. Excess water makes the indoor plant to become susceptible to fungus which leads to damage to the plant where as outdoor plant drains the excess water. Inadequate water supply leads to the binding of indoor plant roots by their containers where as outdoor plants continue to grow in search of water.

Soil preparation
Soil preparation and maintenance is the complex one and is required for the outdoor plants. Nutrients in the soil can be diminished on repeated planting. Soil in indoor gardening will not adjust itself as in outdoor gardening.

Fertilizers are incorporated to kill the fungus that causes harm to miniature plantsthe plants. Fertilizing and disease controlling become more challenging now a days. It is difficult to incorporate fertilizers to indoor plants compared to outdoor plants. Indoor plants accumulate too much of fertilizers so care must be taken to incorporate fertilizers to indoor plants. If any disease or fungus found on indoor plant can be treated easily where as in outdoor plants it is difficult to treat.
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