Archive for Health

Treatment Process for Drinking Water

Water is one of the most essential element to life on earth. Without water no living organism can survive. Treatment of drinking water is the process of removal of contaminants from water and make it acceptable for use. The treatment process for drinking water depends on the location, type of water to be processed and the technology of the plant. Here is a standard treatment process for drinking water.

It is the process of removing dirt or other particles from the water. In this process, alum or polymers are added to the water to be treated. This on reaction with water forms a tiny sticky floc. This floc attracts dirt particles in the water and sticks to it and forms a large floc. This process is also called flocculation.

It is the process where flocs settle down to the bottom. As the water and the flocs pass through the sedimentation basin, water moves slowly to settle down the flocs to the bottom. Flocs which collects to the bottom of the basin is called sludge.

It is the process of removing contaminated particles from water. In this step, the water is passed through the filter to remove suspended floc from water. Filters are made up of a layer of sand and gravel or charcoal. Filters used for the removal of particles are slow sand filters, rapid sand filters and membrane filters. This removes even tiny particles present in the water.

It is the process of killing microbes in the water. In this step, disinfectant such as chlorine is added to the water before passing into the distribution system. It is added to kill if any microbes are present in the water. Residual amounts of disinfectants can be maintained to prevent the biological contamination of water in the distribution system.

Sludge drying
It is the process of removal of solids that are collected from the water by sedimentation process to drying lagoons.

In this process, hexafluorosilicic acid is added to the water which decompose to yield fluoride ions. This fluoride level is adjusted to the optimum level to minimize the dental caries. Excess fluoridation leads to osteoporosis.

PH correction
PH of the drinking water should be 7. Lime is added to the fluoridated water to adjust the PH of the water. It stabilizes the natural soft water to prevent corrosion in distribution system.

Finally the treated water is stored in closed tanks or reservoirs from where it flows through pipes to homes.
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Difference Between DUI and DWI

DUI stands for driving under the influence and DWI stands for driving while intoxicated. DUI is driving under the influence of substances even though they are legal. DWI is driving a vehicle after consumption of alcohol and blood alcoholic concentration is 0.08% or more.

Both DUI and DWI are illegal act of driving a vehicle while impaired by alcohol or drugs. Some states consider both DUI and DWI as same but there are differences between DUI and DWI, such as:

Based on age
There is a difference between DUI and DWI based on the age. Driving under influence is reserved for minors under age of 21 years. If a minor is arrested for drunk driving he or she may be charged for driving under influence (DUI).

Driving while intoxicated is directed for adults. If an adult driving a vehicle while drinking, he or she may be charged for driving while intoxicated (DWI).

Based on blood alcohol content
Another difference between DUI and DWI is based on the concentration of alcoholic content in blood. An individual can be charged with driving under influence (DUI), if blood alcoholic content is maximum of 0.08%.

An individual can be charged with driving while intoxicated (DWI), if the blood alcoholic content is minimum of 0.08% and maximum blood alcohol content. This can be measured by performing tests like blowing air out from mouth, blood samples.

Based on the influence of drugs
Driving under influence is due to the influence of drugs like opium even though they are legal. Driving while intoxicated is the driving which is influenced by the alcohol consumption with the concentration of alcohol in blood with more than 0.08%.

Based on punishments and penalty
The main difference between these two depend on the severity of punishment. Although the penalty and punishment depends on the environmental conditions surrounding the conviction and individual criminal record, driving under influence (DUI) has less penalty than driving while intoxicated (DWI).

Penalties include jail time, suspension of license. In both the conditions, the license will be suspended but much shorter time in case of DUI compared to DWI. In case of DUI, license will be suspended for less than 60 days whereas in DWI, license will be suspended for 60-180 days depends on the severity of the condition.
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Types of Gum Diseases

Dental Implant LondonGum disease is a condition that affects the gums and other structures supporting your teeth and also underlying jaw bone. Gum diseases are mainly due to the growth of bacteria that leads to the build up of plaque in mouth. If it is not treated in the early stage it may lead to the loss of teeth.

Gum diseases are of two types, gingivitis and periodontal diseases. Let’s discuss about them briefly.

Gingivitis is a mild problem of gum disease. Normally bacteria grows in our mouth which on reaction with mucous and other particles in mouth leads to the formation of colorless sticky plaque on mouth. If not treated it becomes hard and forms tartar which is difficult to remove. This leads to the inflammation of gums and bleeding from gums called gingivitis.

It is most seen in pregnant women, diabetes patients and patients taking medicines for blood pressure and seizures. There are two forms of gingivitis: acute and chronic gingivitis. Acute gingivitis is due to infection, trauma and micro organisms, whereas chronic gingivitis is due to the inflammation of gum tissue surround the teeth.

Periodontal diseases
If gingivitis is untreated, it can lead to periodontitis. The plaque starts spreading all over the mouth and grows below the gum line. This plaque releases toxins which destroys the tissue and bone supporting the teeth. Then gums get separate from teeth and forms gap between the teeth. These gaps are occupied with debris and become infected. Finally teeth becomes loose and loss of teeth takes place. There are many forms of periodontitis, such as:

  • Chronic Periodontitis: It is the inflammation below the gum line. It occurs mostly in people over 40 age. It causes the destruction of gum and bone tissue. It cannot be cured completely as the supporting tissue gets destroyed. However, it can be treated by tissue grafting surgery to strengthen the bone.
  • Aggressive Periodontitis: It is the condition where there is a rapid loss of gum attachment or loss of bone tissue. It is same as chronic periodontitis, but the progression is rapid. It is commonly seen in people who smoke and who have a family history of this disease. Like chronic periodontitis, it can be treated by medications and surgery.
  • Narcotizing Periodontitis: It is rarely seen and it is the infection due to the death of gum tissue and periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. It is mainly seen in patients with HIV, immuno suppression and malnutrition. It can be treated by using anti microbial pills, medicated mouth washes and root planning and scaling method.

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Types of Oral Cancer

Cancer is a dreaded ill-health condition. Oral cancer is the uncontrolled division of abnormal cells that leads to growth of malignant tumors in oral cavity. Oral cancer is the branch of head and neck type cancer. Oral cancer affects lips, tongue, mouth, tonsils, gums, teeth and salivary glands.
Tumors are classified into 2 types:

  • Benign tumors
  • Malignant tumors

Benign tumors are non cancerous. They grow very slowly and will not spread to other parts. Once removed by surgery, they will not recur.

Malignant tumors are cancerous tumors. They grow rapidly and proliferation of cells to other parts. Even though removed by surgery it will come again.

Types of oral cancer
There are several types of oral cancers:

  • Lip cancer
  • Tongue cancer
  • Salivary gland cancer
  • Lymphoma
  • Melanoma

1. Lip cancer
Lip cancer is a condition where abnormal growth of cells on the lining of lip happens. It is more common in the male than the female. Lip cancers are of two types: basal and squamous cell carcinoma. It is easily detectable and cured in early stages.


  • Exposure of lips to UV radiation along with tobacco usage.
  • Regular consumption of alcohol
  • Infection with HPV virus

Detected at early stage, it can be treated easily. Mainly lower lip get effected as it is more exposed than upper lip. It can be treated by surgery, Radiation therapy, Cryotherapy. Mohs surgery is used to remove the thin layer of skin tissue that is affected by tumor.

2. Tongue cancer
Tongue cancer is the development of malignant tumor on tongue surface. If the tumor on front surface of tongue then it is comes under oral cancer. If it on base of the tongue, it comes under oropharyngeal cancer.


  • Improper fitting of dentures
  • Acid reflux from mouth
  • Chewing tobacco products
  • Exposure to chemicals
  • Deficiency of essential nutrients

It can be easily treated by surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy. Targeted drug therapy effectively treat tongue cancer. In this drugs interfere with the growth of tumors.

3. Salivary gland cancer
Cancer which affects salivary glands. Salivary glans produces saliva which keeps mouth moist. This helps to remove bacteria from mouth. Most of the tumors on salivary glands are benign. It is less common.


  • Old age people are more affected
  • Exposure to chemicals
  • Radiation therapy on neck and head

Salivary gland cancer can be treated by fast neutron radiation therapy, photo beam radiation therapy. Radio sensitizers are the drugs that makes tumors to become sensitive to radiation.

4. Lymphoma
Lymphoma is the cancer where proliferation of abnormal cells happens on lymph nodes. Tonsils are also affected as these are made up of lymph tissue. Lymphoma affects immune system. Lymphoma are of two types Hodgkin and Non Hodgkin. Non hodgkin is commonly seen and affects both T-cells and B-cells.


  • Immune deficiency-Auto immune diseases
  • Nuclear radiation exposure

Immunological therapy with monoclonal anti bodies boosts immune system, stem cell transplantation, surgery are the treatments for lymph node cancer.

5. Melanoma
These are less common and seen on maxillary gingiva. Detection in early stage saves life.


  • Dysfunction of the adrenal gland
  • Immune deficiency
  • Genetics

Radiation therapy and surgery are helpful to treat this type of carcinoma.

Types of Denture Relines and Their Uses

A dental relining is resurfacing the surface of the teeth with a new material. Dental relining can be done in two ways one is the direct way and the other is indirect way. This is necessary because the tissues or bones of your teeth may change from time to time. By this, the dentures that you wear may become loose after the tooth extraction due the shrinking of the bone and they must be re-fitted nothing but relined from time to time as they don’t fit your jaw well. For denture relining, two methods are available one is direct way done at the chair side and the other is indirect way done in lab. This two methods are discussed below.

Types of denture relines
1. Hard (dental office or lab)
2. Soft (dental office)

Hard relines:
Hard relines are made of a material used for hardening the denture. With this, the dentures can be fixed for a long time than soft relines. The reshaping procedure is same for the both but the material used differs. This hard relines can be done at chairside or at the lab. Even though they can be done in both ways many dentists recommend them to send outside as there is a chance of raising the complications when they are unfit. To get the hard resins that are sent, you must wait without dentures till they are fixed.

Soft relines
This is a preferred option as compared to denture because they are more comfortable than hard relines. If the patient who is with bone resorption taking place rapidly, then this type of dentures will be very useful for them. The soft relines are done at office by adding a liquid polymer in the form of layer into the denture for cushion and depth. This is done very quickly and securely than the hard relines. This fine tuning of the soft relines has to be done frequently for optimal fitting, or if you want them to be for long time, you can move for hard relines which will be a better option.
The procedure carried for both is same, the only difference is if they are done in lab, the palate will be removed and placed with new one before they are processed.

The chairside relining will have some disadvantages when compared to the relines done in the lab. They are:

  • Due to polymerization of materials, the heat gets released which could burn the oral mucosa.
  • Patients having chairside relining may have unpleasant taste and discomfort.
  • Stability of the color may be poor.
  • Some materials will have very less life span or limited life span and also will have weaker bond strength.

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