Tag Archive for automotiv

All about Braking System and Its Components

Brakes are important components in automobiles to control the speed of vehicles. In this article, we will discuss the braking system and their components. Brakes are essential for safety.

About brakes and braking system

  • A brake is a mechanical device that controls motion of an automobile/vehicle by slowing or stopping the moving parts.
  • Braking of a vehicle depends on static function of brakes between tires and road
  • surface.
  • In braking system “The kinetic energy is dissipated in the form of heat energy”.
  • Most brakes use friction between moving parts (wheel or wheel drum) and stationary parts of vehicle (brake shoes).
  • The heat energy generated due to application of brakes is dissipated into air.

Components of braking system in a vehicle
Brake pedal

  • The brake pedal acts as a lever.
  • It’s used to increase the force applied by the driver on the brake pedal pad.
  • It uses a lever to transfer the force from the driver’s foot to the master cylinder.

Brake pads

  • These are the steel plates that are bound with a frictional material facing the rotor. These are mostly used in disc brakes.

Brake lines

  • Brake lines carry the braking fluid from the master cylinder to the brakes.
  • The brake lines transmit a considerable amount of hydraulic pressure to stop the vehicle.
  • These are mostly made of steel and they are attached to the vehicle body with clips to prevent damage from vibration.

Brake shoes

  • These are a pair of steel pieces welded together.
  • A compression spring is placed attached to this shoes so that whenever the brake is applied, the compression spring compresses causing the brake shoes to expand to the brake drum to stop the wheel.

Brake drum

  • It’s a rotating drum-shaped component mounted on the wheel.
  • It is mostly used in drum brakes.
  • The friction between the brake drum and the brake shoes causes the wheel to reduce the speed or stop.

Rotor/brake disc

  • It’s a cast iron material disc which is connected to wheel or axle.
  • With the friction between the brake pads and the brake wheel the motion of the wheel is reduced or stopped.
  • These are also made of reinforced carbon-carbon, and ceramics composite.


  • It’s a moving component which is connected to the master cylinder.
  • It is used to pressurize the braking fluid.


  • The main purpose of the caliper is to slow the vehicles speed by creating friction on the brake disc.
  • The brake caliper fits over the rotor like a clamp.
  • Inside the caliper are a pair of metal plates bonded with friction material called as brake pads.

These caliper are of two types they are as follows

  • Floating caliper
    • It moves relative to the brake disc.
    • It consists of a piston on one side of disc to push inner brake pad into braking surface before pulling caliper body to apply pressure on opposite side of disc.
    • These are also known as a sliding calipers.
  • Fixed caliper
    • It does not move relative to rotor.
    • It uses one or more single pairs of opposing pistons to clamp from each side of the brake disc.

Master cylinder

  • Master cylinder is device which converts the non-hydraulic pressure from your foot into hydraulic pressure.
  • It also controls “slave cylinders” which is at the opposite end of the hydraulic system.
  • It is the most important device pressurizing the braking fluid.

Vacuum servo/brake booster

  • It’s used to enhance the master cylinder and to increases the pressure by driver’s foot by using vacuum in the engine intake.
  • These are effective only when the vehicle’s engine is running.

These are some of the components of the braking system in a vehicle. Proper maintenance of the braking components can prevent brake failure. If you ignore the maintenance of the braking components, it may lead to dangerous accidents.
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Coolant and Its Importance in Vehicles

The coolant plays an important role to protect the engine of your automobile. Without the radiator coolant, your vehicle/car would overheat quickly leading to breakdown and even engine failure. The coolant and water get mixed up in the radiator. This prevents freezing and boiling of the water. In this article, we’ll discuss the coolant and its importance in vehicles.

What does the coolant do?
The coolant is a fluid. It absorbs heat from the engine and then blows it through the radiator. The coolant is also called antifreeze, and is a mixture of ethylene (or propylene glycol) and water, in a 50/50 ratio.

The coolant is a mixture of water and antifreeze. It gets stored in the radiator. Generally, more amount of antifreeze is mixed with water to increase the boiling point and decrease the freezing point. During combustion of fuel, close to 33% of the energy produced will be wasted in the form of surplus heat or exhaust. The excess heat that remains in the engine overheats the engine components which results in its breakdown.

When the coolant mixture moves through the engine by means of a water pump, it circulates through the engine and absorbs the excess heat and takes it to the radiator. Due to the heat exchange process in the radiator, the heat in the coolant is dispelled through the cooling fins, and the coolant is cooled and circulated through the system again. The radiator is placed such that it receives an adequate amount of inflow of outside air consistently to cool the coolant.

Importance of coolant in vehicles
In the absence of the coolant, the heat produced during the internal combustion remains in the engine. Due to the high temperature inside, the motor boils it and destroys the engine very quickly. Due to continuous absorbing heat by the coolant, the water present in the system is likely to evaporate entirely. The water may freeze in cold weather, if the engine is idle. Because of this, the cooling system doesn’t work effectively. Therefore, use of antifreeze is useful to ensure better functionality of the coolant.

You should get the coolant inspected when needed to protect the system’s components against corrosion and overheating.

It is recommended that the coolant should be changed for every 30,000 miles. Even the radiator, should be working well. If rust builds up in the radiator, the heat exchanger may fail leading to problems while you’re driving.

Many mechanical failures are because of overheating of the engine. Ensure that all the cooling system components – the radiator, the water pump, the thermostat and the heater core are in good condition and by keeping the coolant in the system at correct level, you can avoid break down of vehicle.

Making sure to check regularly the coolant in your car reduces the maintenance cost of your car and increases the life of the your engine components.
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Benefits of Using Fuel Cells Over Batteries for Your Car

Fuel cells give more benefits to your car when compared to batteries. Some of them are listed below. So, know the differences and get benefited by using fuel cells.

High flexible
Fuel cells can operate on various types of fuels and they are flexible to use than internal combustion engines or batteries.

Highly efficient
Fuel cells conserves energy and uses stored energy into usable energy in only one step whereas batteries or internal combustion engines require multiple steps to convert. So, fuel cells can achieve higher conversion efficiency than batteries.

The moving parts in the fuel cells are less when compared to the internal combustion engine or battery and this also requires less maintenance. The problem with fuel cells are, they can be easily identified and rectified.

Low or zero emissions
If you use some fuel cells they just release water when they are in use or else very less emissions than other combustion technologies. This reduces the release of air pollutants in the vehicles with fuel cells than vehicles with batteries. With this you can save the environment.

Long time for refueling
Fuel cells need very long time for refueling the vehicle whereas batteries need to be charged in less time when compared to fuel cells. Fuel cells run for long time with the same fuel. Using fuel cells for your vehicle saves lot of money.

Less weight
The vehicles that run on fuel cells will be less in weight whereas vehicles running on batteries will be more weight added through the battery. This leads to more consumption of electricity as the weight of the vehicle is more.

Eliminates pollution
Apart from few emissions the green house gases will emit very less compared to the other engines which eliminates the release of pollutants from the vehicles.

Low noise through vibrations
As there are only few moving parts in the fuel cell it won’t vibrate much than the internal combustion engine or a battery. So, the noise that comes out through fuel cells is negligible.

There are very few disadvantages when compared to vehicles running on batteries. So, maintenance of fuel cells is easy over the batteries for vehicles.
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Steps to Change Your Car’s Flat Tier

Has the car’s tier been flattened in the middle of a drive? Don’t panic. Here are some simple steps that will help you repair your car yourself and without the help of any one.

Step-1: At first park, your car in a safe place were there is a chance to park. For this, you need to check whether the surface of the place where you are parking can restrict the car. It is important for the car to stay on the surface to change the car tier.

Step-2: Get all the tools that are necessary to repair the flat tier from your car tool box in your car. Along with the tool kit, you must also bring a spare tier that you are having in the car.

Step-3: Jack up your car before you start the process for changing your car tier. For jacking up, you must bring the jack and place it in the correct position where there is no plastic at the bottom instead to get contact with metal body of the car body, Else, it gets cracked. Raise the jack until it is in a position to support the car but doesn’t lift it.

Step-4: Take a wrench from the tools and loosen the lug nuts of your car’s flat tier wheel. However, you do it you need to remove the hub cap. The wrench that you brought should match the size of the lug nuts to remove them because there are different sizes of lug nuts. Now, lift the flat tier up from the ground to remove it.

Step-5: After the tier is up and it is ready with loose lug nuts by turning in the anti-clock wise direction. You can remove all the lug nuts of the wheel. Once you remove the lug nuts, you can remove the flat tier.

Step-6: Replace the flat tier now with the spare one through proper rim alignment of the spare tier using bolts, and then finally put the lug nuts back and tighten them until they are snugly hold.

Step-7: Finally, bring back your car to normal position by bringing it down from the jack-up position and remove the jack.

You can change your tier by replacing the flattened tire with the one you have as a spare one. Make sure to keep the car maintenance kit in your car when you are on the drive.
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Why Changing the Power Steering Fluid in Your Car is Essential

Every morning we need to go to our office or travel to some places using automobiles. To move from one place to another we need a vehicle.

Having car has become essential for daily commute. However, it is important to know that the lifespan of a vehicle can be increased only by maintaining it properly. One of the main car maintenance factors is power steering fluid. Power steering fluid is a hydraulic fluid which sends power to power steering in a car. This part helps in driving your car with less effort. The power steering fluid should be checked regularly in a car for smooth running of the car. This article discusses the importance of changing power steering fluid regularly.

To avoid wear and tear of power steering components
In a power steering system, the fluid is the cheapest component. We need to change the fluid by avoiding wear and tear of the components in a car. This increases the lifetime of a car.

After a period of time the seals, O-rings and internal power steering components will wear out. When the components break, the power steering fluid will be contaminated, which makes the power steering harder resulting in breakdown of the system.

Dirty power steering fluid will reduce steering power
The power steering fluid should be pure. A dirty and polluted power steering fluid can damage the performance of the steering in car. Get your car serviced to avoid these problems. Dirty power steering fluid can cause noise while steering by making the steering harder and seals are hardened thus causing leakage and wear and tear of the system.

The level of power steering fluid must be maintained to avoid leakage
The power steering fluid must be checked once a month when the car is warm. If the level of the fluid is low then there might be leakage, this makes the steering difficult and also damages the power steering pump. Change the power steering fluid for every 50,000 miles or every three years. You need to give your power steering system for servicing because repair to power steering components is very expensive.

Use only recommended oil for your car
Use the oil as suggested by owner’s manual, which is recommended for your car. If you hear a noise while steering then your power steering pump might have failed. If any leakage occurs, you should check the level of power steering fluid and make sure it is filled up but do not overfill your reservoir. If the reservoir is not having enough oil, it makes the steering very difficult. You may have to replace the power steering or their will be no steering thus making it more difficult to drive.
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