Archive for Institutions

United States Securities and Exchange Commission – Part-2

The United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is a United States government agency having primary responsibility for enforcing the federal securities laws and regulating the securities industry/stock market. The SEC was created by section 4 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (now codified as 15 U.S.C. § 78d and commonly referred to as the 1934 Act). In addition to the 1934 Act that created it, the SEC enforces the Securities Act of 1933, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, the Investment Company Act of 1940, the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and other statutes.

Christopher Cox is the present chairman of the SEC. To President George He was appointed by President George W. Bush. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt appointed Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., father of President John F. Kennedy, to serve as the first Chairman of the SEC. For a full list of SEC chairs and commissioners, see: Securities and Exchange Commission appointees. he sees: Assigned people of the Commission of securities and interchange. The SEC was established by the congress of the United States in 1934 like an independent one, an independent one, years of following quasi-judicial of the regulating agency near the excessive production caused depression of merchandise, the introduction of the consumer credit, and the great collapse of 1929. The main reason of the creation of the SEC was to regulate stock-market and to prevent corporative abuses referring the offer and the sale with securities and the corporative spreading. The SEC was given the energy to license and of regulating stock markets. At the moment, the SEC is responsible to administer six important laws that they govern the industry of securities. They are: the act of the 1933 securities, the act of interchange of 1934 securities, the act of the contract of 1939 confidence, the act of company of 1940 investment, the act of the advisors of investment of 1940 and, more recently possible one, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.

The enforcement authority given by Congress allows the SEC to bring civil enforcement actions against individuals or companies found to have committed accounting fraud, provided false information, or engaged in insider trading or other violations of the securities law. The SEC also works with the agencies of the application of the penal right to also process individuals and to companies for the offenses that include a criminal violation. In order to reach their mandate, the SEC makes fulfill the requirement statutory that the public companies put under quarterly and annual information, as well as other periodic reports. In addition to annual financial information, the executives of the company must provide a narrative account, call the “discussion and analysis of the management” (MDA) that outlines the previous year of operations and explains how the company went in that period. The management generally also will touch in the next year, skirting the future goals and approaches to the new projects. In an attempt to make level the field that plays for all the investors, the SEC maintains a data base in line in line called EDGAR of what investors can have access to this and to the other information filed with the agency.

United States Securities and Exchange Commission -Part-1

States having the primary responsibility to impose the laws on the federal transferable securities and to regulate the values industry stock exchange. SEC was created by section 4 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (now codified as a § 78d of 15 U.S.C. and generally aimed like the act 1934). In more of the Law 1934 which created it, dry the Law of values of 1933 imposes, the act of act of trust of 1939, the Law of Investment Company of 1940, the act of Investment Advisers of 1940, the act of Sarbanes-Oxley of 2002 The United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is a government agency of the United and other statutes. Christopher Cox is the current President of SEC. It was named by President George W. Bush. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt named Joseph P. Kennedy, the Sr, and father of the President John F Kennedy, with being useful of the first President of SEC. For a full list of chairs and police chiefs of SEC, see: Interested of the Commission of values and exchange.

SEC was established by the congress of the United States in 1934 like independent years following, independent, quasi-legal of organization of standardization of the production finished close caused by depression of the goods, introduction of credit rating of the consumer, and great crash of 1929. The principal reason of the creation of SEC was to regulate the stock exchange market and to prevent Abuses Corporation concerning the offer and the sale of the values and the report of corporation. SEC was indicated the power to authorize and regulate the Stock Markets. Currently, SEC is responsible to manage six principal laws which govern the market of the transferable securities. They are: the act of values of 1933, the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the act of act of trust of 1939, the Law of Investment Company of 1940, the act of advisers in investment of 1940 and, most recently, the act of Sarbanes-Oxley of 2002.

The authority of application given by Congress grants SEC to bring civil proceedings of application counters individuals or companies proven to have the made fraud of accountancy, if the information false, or occupied in the trade of initiate or other violations of the law on the transferable securities. SEC also works with agencies of application of criminal law to continue of the same individuals and companies for offences which include a criminal violation. To carry out its mandate, SEC forces the statutory condition that the limited companies submit quarterly and annual reports, as well as of other periodic reports/ratios. As an element of the annual condition of report, the senior executive of the company must provide a narrative account in more of the numbers called the discussion and the analysis which provides an overall picture of the previous year of the operations and how from management the company went during this time of time. Management will usually also touch the next year, describing future goals and approaches with new projects. In order to try to level the field of play for all the investors, SEC maintains a data base in line called EDGAR (the system of gathering, analysis, and recovery of electronic data) in line of which investors can reach this and with any other information classified with the agency. SEC writes reports/ratios available to the public by the intermediary of the system of EDGAR. SEC also offers publications on investment-related matters for public education. The same interactive system also takes ends and complaints of the investors to help dry to detect transgressors of the laws on the transferable securities

The United States Department of Justice

The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a department of Cabinet in the government of the United States designed to impose the law and to defend the interests of the United States according to the law and to ensure the administration right and impartial of justice for all the Americans (see the § 501 of 28 U.S.C.). The DOJ is managed by the General of agent of the United States (see the § 503 of 28 U.S.C.), one of the original members of the cabinet. The General of agent was at the beginning a work individual and part-time, established by the legal Law of 1789, but this developed with the bureaucracy. At the same time the General of agent gave the legal council to the congress of the UNITED STATES as well as the president, but this had stopped from here 1819 because of the implied workload.

In 1867, the UNITED STATES places the Committee on the legal order, carried out by Congressman William Lawrence, leads an investigation in the creation of a department of law directed by the General of agent and composed of various legal consultants of department and agents of the United States. February 19, 1868, Lawrence presented an invoice in the congress to create the ministry for justice. This first invoice not was successful, however, because Lawrence could not devote time enough to ensure his passage due to his trade with the charge of President Andrew Johnson.

A second bill was presented at the congress by Rhode Island Thomas Representative Thomas Jenckes February 25, 1870, and both the Senate and House passed the bill. The President Ulysses S. Grant then signed the invoice in the law June 22, 1870. The ministry for justice officially began operations July 1, 1870. The invoice, called the Act to establish the Department of Justice, made little to change the responsibilities for General the of agent, and its wages and tenure are remained the same one. The law created a new office, that of the General of legal consultant, to direct and lead the litigation of government in the supreme court of the United States.

With the passage of the Law of trade between States in 1870, the federal government is in the United States. Started to take some responsibilities for application of law, with the ministry for justice was charged carry out these functions. In 1872, the order of the federal prisons was transferred to the new department, starting from the department of the interior. New equipment was established, including the prison at Leavenworth in 1895, and a service for women located in Virginia Occidentale, at Alderson was established in 1924.

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