Employing child is an important issue; it may attract some liability of any sort – civil or criminal -unless employers do not take precautions. There are multiple issues associated with this – hiring, removal and paying compensation to child labors. In Texas, employers are covered under the relevant laws of both state of Texas and federal laws of the union. This article is a guide related to child labor laws for employers in Texas.
Child laws are under FLSA and Texas laws
Child laws in Texas are followed under the provisions of federal FLSA as well as Texas state laws. The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) mandates employers to establish child labor standards applicable to all employees – full-time and part-time – in the private sector in local, state and federal governments.
According to Texas child labor laws, children below the age of 14 years are not permitted to be employed at any time, with an exception of a child working for the parents in occupations that are not hazardous. For example: newspaper delivering.
Texas law on child labor
Under the rules of this law, children of the age group of 14-15 years are subject to the following restrictions:
- Children of this age group are not permitted to be employed beyond eight hours a day or 48 hours a week.
- A child is not permitted to work between 10:00 pm and 5:00 am on day, followed by school day.
- A child is not permitted to work between midnight and 5:00 am on day, not followed by school day.
- A child is not permitted to work between midnight and 5:00 am, during the summer vacation.
Under federal law
Rules under Federal law are more stringent. The restriction include the following.
- A child is not permitted to work more than eight hours on a non-school day; and not more than 40 hours during a non-school week.
- On a school day, a child is permitted to work not more than three hours in a day when school is in session.
- A child is permitted to work better between 0700 hours and 1900 hours, when school is in session and between 0700 hours and 2100 hours from 1st June to Labor Day.
- Children of age group 16 – 17 years may be employed in non-agricultural occupations that are not classified as hazardous under relevant rules.
- When we look for hiring minors for agricultural occupations, make sure to check with Department of Labor or consult an attorney, if needed.
Child labor laws in force in Texas are complex in terms of compliance. It is, therefore, sensible to hire professionals to ensure optimal compliance.
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As in case of other marketing strategies, you need to have clear picture of how this marketing technique benefits you. Since banner advertising has been used for so long, it is considered best advertising options. Let us have a look at the pros and cons that are associated with using this type of marketing strategy.
Pros of banner advertising
Banner advertising can highly benefit your business by announcing new products, building your brand and driving sales. Following are some advantages of banner advertising :
- Finds new customers : With the help of banner advertising, you are able put your message right in front of the people that will be easily available to them. Introducing yourself to new customers in an ideal way to win new businesses.
- Builds your brand: It is one of the most important assets for any business. If you build customers’ trust, it will help you attract them to your business to purchase goods and services. Banner advertising allows you in getting your website name and also your company’s logo in front of your customers.
- Easier and cost effective: One of the advantage of banner advertising is that, it is cost effective as they are easier and quicker to manufacture. Cost of banner adds makes possible for any business to use it as a marketing tool.
- Getting more traffic: With the help of banner advertising, you are able to attract people on large scale to your website.
Cons of banner advertising
Although banner advertising is beneficial to businesses, there are some drawbacks of this marketing tool, which drive many business owners away from opting for this type of advertising :
- Overload of advertising: Every marketer wants to attract the attention of the consumer, thus providing too much of information. The only solution is to develop a campaign that is creative thereby cutting down the clutter and making it in a way that will connect you with your target audience.
- Many choices: There are many number of websites that make difficult to identify the one which will be the most effective ones to target your audience. To select an appropriate site, you need to research more that will be best for your product or service.
- Scope: Still there are many people who rely on traditional type of advertising in order to gather information on a particular product or service, thus making banner advertising a poor tool for marketing.
In view of these pros and cons, you need to make a balanced choice. Research well and take professional experts’ help.
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The early phase
In today’s technological scenario, PCBs play an important role when compared to early were not much commendable. They mainly and mostly consisted of end-end wiring or point-point contacts creating clumsy wiring practices. The turret board (the early form of electronic circuit) was little better than the point connections used.
The earlier practices resulted in a complex network circuit. It was difficult to detect the faults occurring in the system. In addition, fixed the problems resulted in more faults in the circuit later.
Problems related to low data transfer speed and heat generation frequently happened and the mechanical stress produced due to the working of the machinery was harmful to the circuit.
Merits of PCB
The invention of the PCB resolved the issues that were common with the earlier practices. Faults happened less often now and it was a simple task to do away with them in case of faults. Also, the circuit boards could now handle more work load in related environments. Consequently, the electronic industry started expanding with the size of the PCBs getting smaller and more features getting loaded over single chip, the circuits gained credibility in terms of reliability.
Economy in cost and size
The short track lengths and effective use of the board space resulted in compactness of the circuits resulting in usage of a lower amount of raw material and lower cost. Large scale production of PCBs expanded the electronic consumer market, which resulted in the goods available to consumers at lower prices. It also led to capital benefits to the companies. As the size of PCBs reduced, it led to added features like GSM, video capturing abilities and GPRS added on a single chip at little extra cost which made technology viable to the common man.
Miniaturization of the substrate is posing a challenge to the skills and competence of all: researchers as well as developers. And, PCB development is going meet the ever growing technological needs of different users in different sectors.
With the coming of 3D printing technology, the industry will have an edge over the existing 2D and 2.5D technology. The medical domain is challenging, and it is an opportunity for PCB professionals for developing technological applications for easy and simpler use of the equipment in diagnosis of illnesses and other applications in medical profession.
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An ad network represents web sites in advertisement selling, allowing the buyers of advertising to reach audience easily through run-of-network and run-of-category buys.
Advertising networks provide with ad campaigns coordination for media buyers across thousands of people efficiently. One of the issues for publishers is non exclusive representation and exclusive representation where in the former one publishers use advertising options which are secondary to fill out the space which is left unsold by the primary ad network. While the later one brings a higher percentage of revenue sharing but may result in lower percentage of ad inventory being sold.
Types of advertising networks
General networks: These type of networks achieve low pricing through buys in large quantities combined with ad targeting technology and campaign optimization.
- General networks will not allow advertisers to know in which sites their message sill be appearing.
- Most of the general networks offers transparency to sites which are a part of network.
Vertical networks: They specialize in taking on consumer click data for enhancing the value of the purchased inventory.
- Though these networks are capable enough in reaching consumers comparable to large vertical publishers, the quality of net work’s affiliate of the content is said to be anticipated as lower.
- This makes the the vertical networks to price up inventory at a certain discount compared tot hat of the stand alone publishers but rate an advertiser have paid for the same inventory but in case of general networks.
Advertising exchanges: These services forms an auction based market place for ad inventory.
- The focus of the ad exchanges is increasing the efficiency of display market by offering publisher ad inventory for real time sale which has some potential benefit for creating competition in the market for publisher ad inventory.
Demand side networks: These ad networks are developed in house by agencies thus allowing them to acquire and sell the inventory to clients.
- As the rate of ad drops down and other large networks take share of the profit in large amounts, ad agencies see their margins dropping to 10%.
- Taking more control over the buying process could reverse the entire trend hence for these demands to work they should span spot market inventory and guaranteed premium inventory.
In addition to the above mentioned ad networks , it can be segmented in to tier 1 and tier 2 where the former have large number of own publishers and advertisers with high quality traffic thus serving ads and traffic to tier 2 networks.
Thus the above data gives information regarding the various type of ad networks and their impact on advertising.
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Winter is time when you find it difficult to drive unless you equip your car with winter tires. This is because it is difficult to get enough traction on a snow surface. Therefore, you need fit your car with tires designed exclusively for winter. Snow tires are designed specially for use in cold weather, snow and ice. For vehicles to move easily in snow, a good amount of traction is essential. But traction reduces with more grip. Winter tires designed to have more sipes because of this. Another common feature of the winter tires is the metal studs. These studs comprise of a hard pin. The pin is often made of tungsten (wolfram) carbide, a hard material.
Types of winter tires:
a) Performance snow tires
For a snow tire to perform better in terms of speed and control, it is very important to have a good traction. But if traction has to be increased, grip should be decreased. Performance snow tires increase traction at the cost of grip. Performance snow tires provide added responsiveness and thus good maneuverability to the driver. These tires have higher speed rated standards to give the vehicles added traction in cold conditions. However, it not the strongest snow tire, because both studded and stud less winter tires outperform this in terms of durability.
b) Studded snow tires
Studded snow tires contain studs on the surface of the tire. The studs are normally made of tungsten. For the studded tires to perform, the studs have to protrude from the surface for about 1.5 mm. Studded tires give the best in terms of traction among all types of winter tires. But it has a very reduced comfort due to less riding smoothness and noise.
Studded tires are banned or brought under restrictions in many places. This is because, when they are used on proper roads, cause a good deal of damage to the road surface. It is banned in some places, while in some places there is a yearly time limit for its usage.
c) Stud less snow tires
These tires were introduced in the 1990s. Instead of using metal studs, they are made of a softer rubber than other winter tires. This rubber has tiny pores which provide grip to the ground thus compensating for the absence of metal studs. In stud less tires, the contact area of the tire to the ground is maximum and therefore it increases grip and traction on the ice. Stud less tires also have an open tread pattern to make it easy to move through slush.
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